Translating Feed

In this example, I did ‘feed’ translation, not the whole article. Thus, some information was not required to be carried along into the target text. I totally removed the last paragraph because it repeats/concludes the previous one, which is not required in a feed.

Memotong kentang sebelum dimasak boleh mengurangkan kandungan mineralnya sehingga 75%
Science Daily; 2 Julai, 2008 – Kentang yang dipotong lebih cepat masak, tetapi kekurangan 75% daripada kandungan mineral asalnya — menurut kajian yang dijalankan di ARS Vegetable Crops Research Unit di Madison, Wisconsin.
Ini berita baik untuk anda yang mahu mengurangkan pengambilan kalium (misalnya pesakit buah pinggang). Sebaliknya, jika anda mahukan semua khasiat dari wang yang telah anda belanjakan, sebaiknya rebuslah kentang secara keseluruhan tanpa dipotong atau dikupas.

Cubing Potatoes Before Boiling Can Reduce Mineral Content By 75%
ScienceDaily; July 2, 2008 – Cubing potatoes can reduce boiling time, but it also reduces mineral content by as much as 75 percent. That’s one conclusion from a study by research geneticist Shelley Jansky and plant physiologist Paul Bethke at the ARS Vegetable Crops Research Unit in Madison, Wis.

This could be a good cooking strategy for potato fans hoping to reduce potassium intake, such as dialysis patients. But individuals who want to get the highest nutritional bang for their buck would be better off boiling their potatoes whole.

The results of this research could help guide the cooking decisions of people who want to reduce the mineral content of their potatoes, as well as those people who want to maximize their nutritional benefits.


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  1. jun said

    INSPIRING KIDS TO WRITE: Your step-by-step guide
    Lynda Hamilton Mudre. Instructor (1999). New York: Aug 2008. Vol. 118, Iss. 1; pg. 56, 4 pgs

    Abstract (Summary)
    Make the work of classic children’s authors visible, familiar, and accessible to your students, and they’ll begin to think of them as partners whose writing can guide them. 6 USE MENTOR TEXTS TO TEACH ABOUT CRAFT. From their experiences working in classrooms with our youngest writers, teachers Lucy Calkins, Katie Wood Ray, and others have recently conceived the notion of units of study throughout the year. Being familiar with these units, as well as your school district’s curriculum or required benchmark writing behaviors and books on the teaching of writing, will be helpful as you set goals for what you want your students to learn in regard to writing.

    » Jump to indexing (document details)
    Full Text (2079 words)

    Copyright Scholastic Inc. Aug 2008

    At the beginning of the school year, we teachers want so much for our young writers: for them to discover who they are, to pursue and preserve their dreams of childhood, and to experience the joy of something meaningful springing from their own minds. What’s exciting is that all of us who write with kids are contributing to this endeavor. After 30 years of teaching students to write, I’ve learned the steps it takes for them to reach their highest writing potential.

    A full version of this article is available in Scholastic’s Guiding K-3 Writers to Independence, edited by Patricia L. Scharer and Gay Su Pinnell.


    To teach writing well you need to write often and for many purposes, not necessarily with the goal of formal publishing, but to clarify ideas or capture special memories. If we are writers ourselves, we can make the writing experience richer and clearer for our students. Because you have lived the process, you can offer your assistance to kids as they encounter some of the same decisions during their own process. Beyond the mechanics of writing, they must learn what it is to be a writer. If we already appreciate what writing has done to make our own lives richer, we can convey this appreciation with sincerity.


    Encourage your students to join the classroom circle of writers, and let them know that every day, at the same preserved time, everyone will write. You can share your own writing with students so they will see that you’re still learning to be a writer, too.

    Sometimes we mistakenly expect children to talk and act like writers before they even know how writers actually talk and act. When we invite our students to join a community of writers, we take time to introduce them to good writers and show them what it’s like to be a writer.


    There are many opportunities throughout the day for exploring the writing process. Start with your read-aloud. Look for authors to introduce to your students whose work parallels the simple narratives of childhood and is clear and memorable enough for them to use as templates.

    If your students need to work on writing more interesting closings for their personal narrative pieces, use an interactive read-aloud and draw attention to the closings of the stories you choose. By the time they write their own closings, your students can build upon what they have heard.


    Encourage students to use personal stories as the best raw material for writing. Invite storytelling about things that matter most in your students’ world, so that their spoken voices can propel their voices on paper. Build bridges from oral to written language by having students tell stories and then write them down.

    Help your young writers capture their storytelling voices on paper by asking them to tune in to the unique way they verbalize their thoughts and delights. Say something like, “Wow, that’s great storytelling. You need to write that down, just the way you’re saying it.”

    Kids can also learn to capture their voices by sketching parts of the stories they tell aloud.


    Encourage students to read like a writer by noting the ways authors use their craft to draw the reader in, develop a character, and make feelings and events seem real.

    French artist Edgar Degas honed his craft by studying the great masters. Like Degas, we have many teachers available to us in our classrooms. Make the work of classic children’s authors visible, familiar, and accessible to your students, and they’ll begin to think of them as partners whose writing can guide them.


    A good mentor text for young writers is a piece of literature that is simple in writing style and resonates with the students. Have them read the story several times to experience it on different levels. At first, they might focus on the story line or basic meaning of the text. Later, they may become interested in word meanings or details in the illustrations. As these books become more familiar, use them to help students become better writers.

    The text you choose on a particular day should address areas that need improvement, such as using dialogue, creating an unforgettable closing, revealing character, or building tension.

    Choose two or three clear examples, keeping in mind that you can also showcase an instance where a student has tried the same technique.


    Students write about what they know. In most cases, that means Disney and the Power Rangers. To encourage different topics, share the work of real writers with your kids. Have them explain why authors write and how they choose their topics. Eventually, students will realize that reaching into their own thoughts, experiences, passions, and interests will result in more original work.


    As an adult, a large portion of your writing process focuses on what you want to say, because you have internalized, for the most part, the conventions of written language. However, emerging writers are still learning about the complexities of their language in its written form, such as the alphabetic system, concepts of word and letter, directionality, and voice-print match. So, in the beginning, you’ll be spending a good deal of time teaching writers how to build and draw upon these unfamiliar resources. Because you know your students and study their writing, you can strike an instructional balance between craft lessons and lessons that support strategic actions young writers need.


    Students need clear examples coupled with active engagement. They need to be shown how to do something new and should be guided while trying it out, rather than prompted to do something they have never done.

    Here is an example: A teacher has observed that her first graders need to understand focus in writing. Their pieces have a beginning, middle, and end; they are gaining control over a number of words they can write fluently; and their compositions are growing in length. Unfortunately, they are also growing into list stories that chronicle events rather than capture an experience. The teacher wants her students to understand that they can write about one small piece of the topic in order to help the reader experience it more fully.

    Children’s author Ralph Fletcher suggests that specificity is one of the most essential qualities of good writing. He calls this technique “writing small.” Because this concept is new to the class, the teacher decides to start with a demonstration. She begins with her own writing. She recalls aloud a walk in the park, from beginning to end, then shows the children how she decides to focus only on one special part of her experience: the mallard duck family that she saw in the pond area.

    She’s careful to make the task of describing the ducks short, simple, and clear, well within the reach of her students as writers. She closes her eyes and remembers how the four ducklings follow the mother duck in a straight line, joining in a chorus of quacking with Mom: “Quack, quack!” She begins to make four quick sketches on four pages of chart paper, then writes in large print under the sketches. She remembers how the father mallard brought up the rear, showing off his bright green neck and guarding his children, and how they all glide into the water, one at a time, with the ducklings swimming as though they had been practicing for weeks-paddle, paddle, paddle. She ends her story by posing a question: Were the ducklings just born knowing how to swim, or did the parents teach them?


    Writing instructor Shelley Harwayne says that if we are to nurture young writers, we must enter the world of children and see it through their eyes. We must honor the unique ways they use language to reveal their thoughts, feelings, and cultures. We must preserve the worlds that emerge on paper from a child’s lens. As a teacher, avoid the temptation to elicit adult writing from the pens of young writers, whether it’s word choice, language structures, or perspective.

    Introduce students to the registers of finely crafted language and the world of experience beyond their own through literature and conversation. Encourage students to experiment with a technique an author has used well, or an action that will expand their repertoire of choices for writing. Use the expertise of good writers as a scaffold so that students can try out a particular craft.

    Harwayne suggests that a piece of writing is “published” when the writer has found its authentic purpose and completed it for that purpose. Your job is to help your writers find their authentic voices within the craft they want to try, to express themselves by finding just the right way to show how they feel or think, and to choose an approach that will help them be themselves. Often it is the student’s own oral language that helps capture that child’s world.


    By studying your writers and their writing, you will know what they need to learn next. But first, you need a good idea of where it is you want to take your students as writers.

    From their experiences working in classrooms with our youngest writers, teachers Lucy Calkins, Katie Wood Ray, and others have recently conceived the notion of units of study throughout the year. A “unit” is a series of lessons through which children can learn what they need to know in order to grow as writers. Being familiar with these units, as well as your school district’s curriculum or required benchmark writing behaviors and books on the teaching of writing, will be helpful as you set goals for what you want your students to learn in regard to writing. List the goals and keep them in front of you as you plan your teaching.

    Second, see where your students are by carefully observing them in the process of writing. As you analyze writing samples, jot down what you might need to teach them next. Sometimes simple descriptive phrases with tally marks are better than elaborate assessment systems and checklists that require a large amount of time. Looking at what the children actually need and planning from your assessment is far better than following a sequenced program or series of mini-lessons.

    If you use units of study or suggested lessons, see them not as recipes, but rather as resources for gathering approaches and ideas. Work with your colleagues to look at children’s writing to clarify what you might teach. The ultimate guide for instruction is whether what you are teaching is appearing in the children’s independent writing. But then you should also ask, “Is what is appearing what is needed?”


    The longer I teach, the more I marvel at the amazing things young children can learn. I no longer speak to them as though some of the goals I have for them will be accomplished only in the distant future. I expect my students to learn important and complex things, and that’s how I teach. I challenge myself to be clear, to choose just the right language and examples, so that my students can learn. It is so exciting, and humbling, to see our youngest children becoming authors whose work is so fresh and alive. What a contribution they are making to the field of literature! Our efforts in teaching them yield fruit that is delicious!

    Writer’s Notebook FAQ
    Q. What is a writer’s notebook?
    A. It’s a place to collect ideas and items that might someday become writing projects. Entries can take various forms, such as webs, lists, graphs, sketches, questions, memories, or artifacts like photos, bulletins, notes, and ticket stubs.
    Q. When is a good time to start using writers notebooks?
    A. Second grade is a good time to teach students to start creating a record of such things as charts and observations about experiences, responses to read-alouds, lists, sketches, ideas for future writing pieces, or informational notes from content areas.

    [Author Affiliation]
    Linda Hamilton Mudre’s chapter appears in full in Guilding K-3 Writers to Independence: The New Essentials, edited by Patricia L. Scharer and Gay Su Pinnell [Scholastic, 2008].

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